Paris Greening policies to reduce UHI

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The revegetation program is the third direction of Climate Plan of the City of Paris for adaptation. The first two points are:

  • The heat wave, in terms of support for frail and summer comfort,
  • Ensuring the comfort of the buildings that were not imply an increase in air conditioning systems.

The objective of the vegetation plan is to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) in the suburbs. During episodes of extreme heat, the temperature observed in the heart of paris could be up to 8 ° C above the temperatures found in the outer suburbs. Revegetation, both of buildings and public space, is an important tool for limiting the impacts of climate change.

Definition of a heat island : the urban environment is the source of radiative processes, thermal, dynamic, and water that affect the climate of the city. The topsoil, with the presence of more or less water or plant surfaces, human activities that induce the release of heat and pollutants, and urban structure, with building materials and morphology of some part built, are the main factors of this change. Urban climate has the primary effect of limiting the temperature drops at night, which decreases during heat waves, however, is essential for human bodies recovery from heat of the day.

Description of the action

In the fight against climate change, instead of the plant in town is important because the plants by the evaporation process, humidify and cool the air, thus fighting against the microclimates created by urban density. Green space and green roofs waterproofed limited spaces and reduce sewage discharges. It is in this sense that fits the multi-year green roofing to reach Paris in 2020, an area of 3 km 2 vegetated in Paris.

An extensive program has been set up with revegetation of gable walls, roofs and public spaces. Meanwhile, the proliferation of green space can increase the ratio of green space per capita is historically low in Paris. Beyond the comfort it brings, the vegetation contributes to energy saving thermal insulation in walls and roofs. It also improves the quality of the landscape and encourages the integration of the building in the urban environment.

Phasing and the action runs

Phase 1

Identifying areas of intervention for revegetation

The process of vegetation began with the identification by the neighborhood councils supports vegetation. As part of the study of APUR (Atelier Parisien d'Urbanisme), a survey indicates that Paris has 314 hectares of vegetated roof terraces. The vegetation can be implemented on public buildings, private buildings and public spaces.

The greening of public buildings

Certain conditions must be completed before a vegetated wall. Among them: the presence of public land to the wall (garden or street), there is good visibility on the wall from the street, wide enough wall at least 3 meters, a good state surface, the lack of technical rooms, large networks of underground, bays open or billboards.

Terrace roofs - roofs suitable for such operations - were identified in the city of Paris to measure the surface potentially be mobilized to establish vegetation zones. Trade-offs between the roof could result in vegetation and those most suitable for the installation of photovoltaic cells had to be made.

Heritage Branch and the architecture and urban ecology Agency have jointly produced a series of data sheets in order to cross the themes of Green City Heritage and mobilization.

The creation of shared gardens

Place the plant is intended to strengthen in the urban space in order to beautify public spaces and encourage biodiversity. With the support of the cell Main Green Branch Green Spaces and Environment (DEVE), community gardens residents, or shared gardens, grow on rights of way of the City. The City of Paris is committed to achieving a 20-year plan to revegetate all potential areas.

Revegetation of private buildings

The support of condominiums in Paris to begin the renovation of private dwellings was conducted on the entire territory, and a scheduled operation to improve building thermal (OPATB) targeting 24,000 homes energy of the 13th arrondissement, or 2% of Parisian park, has been implemented since the beginning of 2010. This is to find new financing arrangements to encourage the private sector to undertake work. Eco-PTZ but also aid the ANAH, the ADEME and the City of Paris promote the launch of work. Trustees and co-owners - including the value of their heritage is at stake - show a genuine interest in this approach.

Phase 2

Awareness raising, training and information dissemination

Sensitization of stakeholders both public and private is essential for re-vegetation.

For public bodies: The Department of Green Spaces and Environment (DEVE) hosted nearly 8,000 days of training intended for agents of management. The personal service of the Climate Plan were also trained.

Dissemination of information by a permanent advisory energy information was provided by the center of hospitality and service users (Pasu). A training session of the service of building permits was also provided.

For the general public: In 2010, many events have allowed the public to know the steps of vegetation and enhance the new green space. Parks, woods and gardens of Paris were the scene of many events, designed and built by the DEVE, such as: the creation on the steps of City Hall Garden ephemeral, the exhibition "In the footsteps of Charles Darwin "at the Parc de Bagatelle in Paris or the Days of energy and climate.

Phase 3

Implementation of revegetation works

Modes of action specific to each type of building were taken to insert the frame in a process of adaptation.

The greening of the roofs had initially been carried out on the roofs of public buildings (schools, swimming pool, library, etc.).. To encourage the installation of green roofs in the private park, this was especially after raising awareness, to develop support systems to generate interest and leverage. The price of square meter of green roof is approximately € 80 to € 12 against the slate. For this reason a grant to the green roofing for condominiums has been set up for those who request it in the program of general interest for sustainable development.

On shared gardens, a policy promoting citizens' initiatives plantation was established, supported by the Municipal Main Verte. The possibility of financing a project support and funding of innovative projects including - for example, recovery of storm water - helped raise public awareness and promote the feasibility of projects. The gardens are green label are included in the Main program Main Verte network.

The associations have signed an agreement with the City of Paris and receive advice, information and documentation. The shared garden has a place on land the City of Paris but can also be made on a different field (social landlords, Réseau Ferré de France, etc.).. In September 2010, 50 are shared gardens that have been available to Parisians.

The green walls were heavily worn by the city of Paris, especially with the green wall of the Quai Branly Museum, which received wide visibility.

The opinion of the Borough Mayor is required, the ownership status of the wall is checked if necessary, a consultation with dealers in the basement is done and the work of any protection or diversion of the networks are made. According to the site, approval of the proposed green wall is sought from the Architect of the Buildings of France. The owner or the co-ownership is then entered for approval. A bailiff is made in accordance with the owners of the building on the state of the wall. After revegetation work, routine maintenance is provided by the services of the City of Paris. Regular monitoring of the structure and development of plants is established, with the appropriate gear (buckets), so as not to let the plants invade guttering or roofs. In 2010, the place the plant in the Parisian public space has grown with the creation of 450m ² of planted walls or walls 17.

The entire process of vegetation allowed the establishment of other virtuous practices: energy consumption lower, less mechanized operations, a drastic reduction of pesticide treatments and a rational management of irrigation to limit the use of water.

Phase 4

Strengthening of regulatory measures on adaptation to climate change

The City of Paris has initiated a process of certification of green space in Paris: the label "green space green." By 2014, the 450 parks and gardens of Paris will be audited by an independent body. This label values ​​change daily practices by:

The establishment of a differentiated management areas (maintenance adapted to the site and use for the preservation of the environment and biodiversity) the gradual replacement of chemical treatments by alternative cautious of the environment with an approach limiting water consumption, energy development of biodiversity. The PLU of the City of Paris was amended in November 2010. Article 13 divides the urban area into two general areas: one area of ​​development of the plant and another building of the plant. Strengthening in the open space was included in this article.

Indicators for monitoring and evaluation

The completion of 30 hectares of green space by 2014 The progress of the revegetation of walls and roofs of the city through a 3-year Master Plan in terms of vegetated surfaces The advanced projects in the private park vegetation (vegetated area) Effective labeling of all the Parisian gardens by 2014 Cost In 2009, the budget of the DEVE for the creation of public green spaces $ 33 million in operating budget and 31 million euros of investment. The program of green roofing has cost 2.4 million euros in 2008 with the creation of 25 150 m 2 of green roofs.

Success Factor

Have a surface potential vegetating Awareness of biodiversity through projects green walls

Point Of Care

Identify the progress of the vegetation in the private park Reforming Planning Branch to institutionalize a more stringent control for the illegal settlements especially in medium-sized buildings or small In parallel, set up an "observatory of biodiversity" Enter the greening process in a broader program of green and blue (Biodiversity Plan)