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Ile-de-France: 11,089,124 (2004) 10,938,000 (1999)
City: 2,151,853 (2004) 2,125,800 (1999) 2,152,423 (1990) 2,188,918 (1982) City Area: 1,118 sq. km.[432 sq. mi.] City Density: 1,925 inh./sq. km.[4 983 inh./sq. mi.]
Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft). Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris covers an oval measuring 86.928 km2 (34 sq mi) in area. The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the twenty clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 (34 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to the present 105.39 km2 (41 sq mi).
Paris has warm summers and chilly winters (although rarely below freezing or any snowfall). Rainfall is moderate throughout the year, and it is known for its sudden rainfall. Snowfall is rare. The weather here is fairly unpredictable. The average annual temperature hovers around 55°F. It can reach up to 90°F in August and can fall below 30°F in January. Skies are cloudy more often than not, and it rains in June or October as you are in February or April. Humidity is rarely high and use of air conditioning is not widespread, although this is changing.
Paris has the typical Western European oceanic climate which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. Over a year, Paris' climate can be described as mild and moderately wet. Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures hovering between 15 and 25 °C, and a fair amount of sunshine. Each year, however, there are a few days where the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Some years have even witnessed some long periods of harsh summer weather, such as the heat wave of 2003 where temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, surged up to 40 °C (104 °F) on some days and seldom cooled down at night. More recently, the average temperature for July 2010 has been 21 °C (70 °F), with an average minimum temperature of 16 °C (61 °F) and an average maximum temperature of 27 °C (81 °F).
Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights, but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurss frequently in both seasons. In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cold but generally above freezing with temperatures around 7 °C. Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) for only a few days a year. Snowfall is rare, but the city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation. Recently, notably in 2009 and 2010, cold waves brought repeated heavy snowfalls (15 cm (5.91 in) in 2010) and temperatures plummeting to −10 °C (14 °F) and −20 °C (−4 °F) in the Paris suburbs.
Rain falls throughout the year, and although Paris is not a very rainy city, it is known for heavy sudden showers. Average annual precipitation is 652 mm (25.7 in) with light rainfall fairly distributed throughout the year. The highest recorded temperature is 40.4 °C (105 °F) on 28 July 1948, and the lowest is a −23.9 °C (−11 °F) on 10 December 1879.
The 2003 European heat wave is one of the hottest summers on record in Europe, especially in France. The heat wave led to health crises in several countries and combined with drought to create a crop shortfall in Southern Europe. More than 40,000 Europeans died as a result of the heat wave.
Because of the usually relatively mild summers, most people did not know how to react to very high temperatures (for instance, with respect to rehydration), and most single-family homes and residential facilities built in the last 50 years were not equipped with air conditioning. Furthermore, while there were contingency plans for a variety of natural and man-made catastrophes, high temperatures had never been considered a major hazard.
This image shows the rise of the temperature at the station Paris Waterworks between the year 1880 to 2020. Population between the year 1951 - 1960 was 8,720,000.
This image shows the rise of the temperature at the station Paris-Montsou between the year 1955 to 1975. The population between the year 1961 - 1970 was 8,720,000.
This image shows the rise of the temperature at the station Paris Waterworks between the year 1880 to 2020. The population between the year 1880 - 1995 was 8,720,000.
This image shows the rise of the temperature at the station Paris Waterworks between the year 1880 to 2020. The population between the year 1895 - 2011 is 10,000.
The current context of global warming and the emergence of questions relative to urban heat island effect, the creation of a district cooling system can help limit drastically the impact of mass utilization of air conditioning.
As a capital city with a dense urban fabric and some 60 million square metres of tertiary sector premises, Paris represents a favourable environment for the development of a district cooling system. It is for this reason that Climespace operates and develops the Paris district cooling system under a public service concession held with the City of Paris since 1991.
Through its Climate Plan, the City of Paris is making energy control one of the key issues of its environmental policy. It has undertaken with its partners to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption in its area by 25% between now and 2020. The Climate Plan also aims to increase the share of renewable energy in the city's energy consumption to 25%.
The District Cooling System of Climespace is the largest in Europe, with a network of more than 140 km in length and 325 MW of installed cooling capacity serving nearly 500 customers. The cooling energy produced is used, for example, for the air conditioning of the Louvre Museum, preserving the works of art and ensuring the comfort of the millions of people who visit the museum each year. Since the end of the 1990's, Climespace has deployed a strategy based on energy efficiency. The construction of power plants cooled by the water from the River Seine, the use of renewable cold sources and fundamental changes in both the management and the operation of the facilities have enabled Climespace to substantially improve its performance between 2002 and 2010.
The development of the Paris district cooling system has limited the installation of stand-alone airconditioning systems in the city. For an equivalent installed cooling capacity, the district cooling system and the strategy deployed by Climespace have brought truly impressive savings: - Annual reduction in electricity consumption of 42% - Annual reduction in CO2 emissions of 48%
Climespace serves the interests of the Paris community through its commitment to continuously improve energy efficiency and reducing the environmental impact of its activity. An environmental assessment is communicated to the City of Paris each year.