Water. Paris. France.

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Water on the Earth

World Water Day

World Water Day has been observed on March 22 since 1993 when the United Nations General Assembly declared March 22 as World Day for Water.
This day was first formally proposed in Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Observance began in 1993 and has grown significantly ever since; for the general public to show support, it is encouraged for the public to not use their taps throughout the whole day, the day has become a popular Facebook trend.

The basic objectives of carrying out of the World day of water resources:
— To promote acceptance of corresponding measures for a solution of a problem of supply of the population potable water;
— To inform the public on importance of protection and preservation of resources of fresh water and water resources as a whole;
— To involve in celebrating of the World day of water resources of the government, the international agencies, the non-governmental organizations and a private sector.
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World Day for Water, Previous Years
2011: Water for cities: responding to the urban challenge
2010: Clean Water for a Healthy World
2009: Transboundary Waters
2008: Sanitation
2007: Coping With Water Scarcity
2006: Water and Culture
2005: Water for Life 2005-2015
2004: Water and Disasters
2003: Water for Future
2002: Water for Development
2001: Water for Health
2000: Water for the 21st Century
1999: Everyone Lives Downstream
1998: Groundwater - The Invisible Resource
1997: The World's Water: Is there enough?
1996: Water for Thirsty Cities
1995: Women and Water
1994: Caring for our Water Resources is Everybody's Business

Ecology

Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects , plants, and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. read more

Water scarcity

"Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink" Samuel Coleridge, Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
Water scarcity already affects every continent. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world's population, live in areas of physical scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation. Another 1.6 billion people, or almost one quarter of the world's population, face economic water shortage (where countries lack the necessary infrastructure to take water from rivers and aquifers).
Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and the World in the XXIst century. Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century, and, although there is no global water scarcity as such, an increasing number of regions are chronically short of water.
Water scarcity is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon. There is enough freshwater on the planet for six billion people but it is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed.

Water stress versus water scarcity
Hydrologists typically assess scarcity by looking at the population-water equation. An area is experiencing water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1 700 m3 per person. When annual water supplies drop below 1 000 m3 per person, the population faces water scarcity, and below 500 cubic metres "absolute scarcity".
Water scarcity is defined as the point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully. Water scarcity is a relative concept and can occur at any level of supply or demand. Scarcity may be a social construct (a product of affluence, expectations and customary behaviour) or the consequence of altered supply patterns - stemming from climate change for example.

Did you know?
-Around 700 million people in 43 countries suffer today from water scarcity.
-By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world's population could be living under water stressed conditions.
-With the existing climate change scenario, almost half the world's population will be living in areas of high water stress by 2030, including between 75 million and 250 million people in Africa. In addition, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people.
-Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of water-stressed countries of any region.
The modeling approach* uses the water stress index to indicate the gap between wate rsupply and demand Thresholds of water withdrawals represent degrees of sustainability within river basins Today, over 20% of global GDP already at risk due to water stress Growth scenarios established to measure the change for water requirements sector-by-sector and country-by-country Productivity scenarios can be higher or lower than a business-as-usual trajectory, also established by sector Already today, water-scarce regions account for 36% of global population (2.5 Bn) and 9.4 trillion USD (22%) of global GDP Under business-as-usual water productivity and medium growth, 52% of population and 45% of GDP are in regions at risk due to water stress Under high GDP growth a grey scenario will increase risk for 820 m people and 15.5 trillion USD of GDP1 compared to a blue pathwayA high growth grey scenario would be unsustainable A Blue scenario would sustain high growth Megatrend scenarios – Parameter overview (1/2) Megatrend scenarios – Parameter overview (2/2) 2010 Grey, medium growth 2030 Grey, medium growth 2050 Water productivity calculated bottom-up from key drivers

Water researches. Paris. France

Water resources

Groundwater

Groundwater silicification in Paris Basin limestones; fabrics, mechanisms, and modeling
Paris Basin Tertiary formations contain large deposits of lacustrine limestones. The limestones have a low clastic content and many secondary dewatering and pedogenic-paludine fabrics indicating deposition in shallow environments. These lacustrine limestones commonly contain cherts that crosscut sedimentary structures. The silicified zones may be pervasive and retain the structure and dull aspect of the limestone or form irregularly shaped translucent nodules. Quartz is almost the only silica phase present in the cherts. Two main types of silicification occur together: (1) voids partly or entirely filled with quartz, and (2) limestone matrix that has been replaced by microcrystalline quartz with preservation of most of the primary limestone fabric. There is a systematic relationship between silicification and high-porosity zones. The replacement of the limestone matrix by quartz is directly connected to voids infilled with quartz. Because the limestones are pure, without clayey layers, the silica must have come from other formations (overlying sands and soils) and been introduced by groundwater flow. In view of the weak solubility of silica in surficial waters, substantial groundwater flow is needed to supply the silica precipitated from the solution. This explains the observed relationships between voids and silicification. A coupled mathematical model (reaction-transport) of this type of silicification was used to characterize the physicochemical conditions and to attempt a quantitative treatment of the phenomenon. Kinetics seem to be the limiting factor of quartz precipitation in the voids. However, the modeling shows that the kinetics of quartz precipitation limit the development of the silica replacement, whereas the diffusion of the dissolved species, from the replacement front towards the voids, seems to limit calcite dissolution. Limestone is replaced by silica, without any increase in the porosity, if the groundwater is close to equilibrium with calcite. The precipitation rate of the quartz depends on the number of quartz nuclei. The model predicts that silica deposition and calcite replacement can be completed in about 10,000 to 100,000 years.

Rivers

The Seine (French: La Seine, pronounced: [la sɛn]) is a major river and commercial waterway within the regions of the Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie in France. It is 776 km (486 miles) long, rising at Saint-Seine near Dijon in center-eastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre.[1] It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 km (75 miles) from the sea. Over sixty percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating: excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the Rive Droite and Rive Gauche within the city of Paris. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Louis-Philippe and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur. read more

Fountains in Paris

The Fountains in Paris originally provided drinking water for city residents, and now are decorative features in the city's squares and parks. Paris has more than three hundred fifty fountains, the oldest dating back to the 16th century.
The history of fountains in Paris until the mid-19th century was the history of the city's struggle to provide clean drinking water to its growing population. The building of fountains also depended upon the law of gravity; until the introduction of mechanical pumps, the source of the water had to be higher than the fountain for the water to flow. read more

Production

Natural sources

Existing

Shungite for cleaning water

Shungite has another very important feature - it is an excellent sorbent, purifying air and water from many organic and inorganic compounds and the abundance of free radicals (as it is known that it is an overabundance of free radicals which is the cause of many illnesses.
Shungite possesses biological activity and is able to transfer this property to water. In contact with water shungite disinfects it, kills E. coli, Vibrio cholerae, neutralizes impurities of heavy metals, organochlorine compounds, ammonia, nitrates. But in our days it is very difficult in almost any, even the most prosperous in terms of ecology part of the globe, to find clean and healthy water, without impurities, without "the debris of civilization".
When you lay shungite stones in water they enrich water with fullerenes. Shungite water has powerful antioxidant properties, many times superior to the presently known antioxidants (vitamins C, E, carotenoids, etc.). Shungite stones or fullerenes are able to identiry the excess of free radicals and neutralize it, thereby purifying the water.
Fullerenes normalize the nerve processes, influencing the exchange of neurotransmitters, improving the work capacity of man and his resistance to stress. They have clearly expressed anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effect, thus relieving pain, suppressing the development of many allergic diseases and improving immunity.
Contact of shungite with water leads to the formation of water-mineral solution possessing unique medicinal qualities, in fact, finished medicines, created by nature, without chemicals, without any human intervention. The value of this "drug" is confirmed by three centuries of using.
Shungite for cleaning water

Water In The Wilderness

Water is essential to all life. Good thing, then, that three-quarters of the planet is covered with it. However, having said that we’ve all been on trips where we’ve discovered to our surprise we didn’t pack enough water. This article will attempt to illustrate some of the more practical methods of both finding and making water safe to drink.

Finding water:
You can find water anywhere from the temperate forests to the arid deserts, all you need to know is what to look for:
- Green Vegetation
- Rock crevices
- Animals & birds (they will often stick close to water)
- Valleys and low areas of natural drainage
- Muddy or damp ground
- Erosion around the base of rocks
- Dried-up driver beds and streams
Condensation Trap Dew Trap Leaf Still
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Non-Existent

Rainwater Harvesting Umbrella Scales Up.

Rainwater harvesting is a big deal, especially in Australia. Designer Chris Buerckner has developed this idea for a harvesting umbrella for urban sports grounds; it spreads out in the rain to gather water and channel it into an underground tank, and folds up to get out of the way at other times (unless it is being used to provide shade as well).
I do wonder how this is better than just letting the water soak into the ground and be stored naturally; I suppose the release of the water can be more accurately controlled.
Rainwater Harvesting Umbrella Scales UpRainwater Harvesting Umbrella Scales UpRainwater Harvesting Umbrella Scales UpRainwater Harvesting Umbrella Scales Upumbrella for collecting rain waterumbrella for collecting rain water

EVOLO SKYSCRAPER. Freshwater factory.

As you might know, although water is very present on earth, 97% is salted and 2% is blocked as ice. Actually, there is only about 1% left of liquid freshwater and the UNO and the World Water Council estimate there might be a crisis affecting half the worldwide population by 2030. Freshwater will be a major stake in the 21st century. Indeed the production of a daily food intake for a human being requires 3000 liters of freshwater and the annual rate of freshwater needs is 64 billions cubic meters.
Farming makes up 70% of the worldwide freshwater consumption. Our proposal is a totally new building: an unseen response to sustainable development and the up coming stakes.
The tower is made of several circular tanks filled with brackish water. These tanks are sheltered in spherical greenhouses. The brackish water is brought up in the tower by tidal powered pumps. The water pipes network is incorporated in the tower main structure. The tanks are planted with mangroves: these plants have the particularity to grow on brackish water and to sweat freshwater. So, the mangroves feed on brackish water and then their leaves perspire freshwater. This freshwater sweat evaporates in the greenhouse and condensates by the night into dew on the sphere plastic wall to be collected in a freshwater tank. Then, thanks to its at altitude storage, the produced freshwater can be distributed to the fields by gravitational flow. The total surface of the tower is one hectare. One hectare of cultivated mangroves should produce 30000 liters of freshwater a day. For example, the tower will be able to irrigate a one-hectare field of tomato a day.
This is in this sunny and arid climate that our project is to be built. Our tower is design to produce freshwater to irrigate the cultivated lands standing at its feet. We’ve implemented our proposal in Almeria as a case study but it can apply anywhere.
This project is a new solution for farming’s needs: this skyscraper is a freshwater factory.
EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER EVOLO SKYSCRAPER
DCA - Official WebSite

Artificial sources

Realized projects

1. The WATERCONE

In many parts of the world, lack of access to clean, potable water is a major issue. Water may be found nearby, but only in a brackish or polluted state. Areas close to the ocean may see miles of water, but not a drop to drink. UNICEF estimates that every day 5000 children die as a result of diarrhea caused by drinking unsafe water. The Watercone could change all of that.
The Watercone, invented by Stephan Augustin, is a conical solar still made from recyclable polycarbonate, with a screw cap spout on the top and a collecting trough in the base which catches the condensation for use as drinking water. The design is ingenious. It’s simple, cheap, and effective. The units even nest together to reduce the transportation costs.
The Watercone concept is easily understood by almost anybody within seconds, and there’s no need for technical jargon or complex directions. There are no parts to replace or maintain, and the cone and base are made from Bayer Makrolon, an ultra-tough and recyclable UV resistant polycarbonate. The base is made from recycled polycarbonate.
Simply place the cone over a pan of salty water (or any damp ground, even floating on a pool of water), leave it in the sun to evaporate, you flip it over at the end of the day, take off the cap and drink or store the water.
The Watercone site claims that one cone can produce one liter of water per-day (on average). The life expectancy is 3 to 5 years, and even when the polycarbonate gets cloudy and reduces the effectiveness of the distiller, the cone can still be used to collect rainwater.
layout of the watercone watercone1 salt. watercone work. watercone harvest. watercone people-watercone

2. Portable solar device creates potable water

By harnessing the power of the sun, a Monash University graduate has designed a simple, sustainable and affordable water-purification device, which has the potential to help eradicate disease and save lives.
The Solarball, developed as Mr Jonathan Liow’s final year project during his Bachelor of Industrial Design, can produce up to three litres of clean water every day. The spherical unit absorbs sunlight and causes dirty water contained inside to evaporate. As evaporation occurs, contaminants are separated from the water, generating drinkable condensation. The condensation is collected and stored, ready for drinking.
Liow’s design was driven by a need to help the 900 million people around the world who lack access to safe drinking water. Over two million children die annually from preventable causes, triggered largely by contaminated water. It is an increasing problem in developing nations due to rapid urbanisation and population growth.
‘After visiting Cambodia in 2008, and seeing the immense lack of everyday products we take for granted, I was inspired to use my design skills to help others,’ Mr Liow said.
Mr Liow’s simple but effective design is user-friendly and durable, with a weather-resistant construction, making it well suited to people in hot, wet, tropical climates with limited access to resources.
‘The challenge was coming up with a way to make the device more efficient than other products available, without making it too complicated, expensive, or technical,’ Mr Liow said.
Jon Liow. The Solarball. The Solarball1 The Solarball2 The Solarball3 The Solarball - people

3. Water from Fog

Fog Catchers Bring Water to Parched Villages
When dense fog sweeps in from the Pacific Ocean, special nets on a hillside catch the moisture and provide precious water to the village of Bellavista, about 10 miles (16 kilometers) outside of Lima, Peru.
With a few thousand dollars and some volunteer labor, a village can set up fog-collecting nets that gather hundreds of gallons of water a day—without a single drop of rain falling, conservationists say.
German conservationists and biologists Kai Tiedemann and Anne Lummerich, who run Alimón, a small nonprofit that supports Latin American development, are trying to help with the last of those problems. Since 2006 they've been working with new settlements on the outskirts of Lima to set up special nets that scoop water directly from the air.
Rain rarely falls on these dry hills. The annual precipitation in Lima is about half an inch (1.5 centimeters), and the city gets its water from far-off Andean lakes.
But every winter, from June to November, dense fog sweeps in from the Pacific Ocean.
With a few thousand dollars and some volunteer labor, a village can set up fog-collecting nets that gather hundreds of gallons of water a day—without a single drop of rain falling.
Even as they worked, though, the villagers thought the fog-catching idea sounded a little crazy. "They listened to us politely, but they didn't really believe that it worked," Lummerich said.
When water started appearing, it seemed too good to be true. "At the beginning," Lummerich said, "the people from the village thought Kai carried the water uphill during the night to fill the tanks, because they couldn't believe there was so much water."

Like Opening a Tap
Fog collection works not by condensation, which is what happens when water vapor hits a cold surface and transforms into a liquid. In fact, the water in fog is already in liquid form—it's just in very, very small drops.
The collectors Lummerich and Tiedemann started with look like giant volleyball nets, 13 feet (4 meters) tall and 26 feet (8 meters) wide. The nets, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, stretch between pairs of wooden poles. The top of each net is 18 feet (5.5 meters) above the ground.
As wind blows the heavy fog through, tiny droplets stick to the coarse woven mesh, made of a kind of plastic netting that is designed to shade young fruit trees. The netting is easy to find—any hardware store in Peru carries it—and relatively inexpensive.
As more and more tiny droplets stick to the net, they clump together and form drops, and eventually gravity pulls the drops down into a gutter. From there, the water flows through tubes into two brick tanks and a pool—all built by villagers—which together hold more than 25,000 gallons (94,635 liters) of water.
On a good day, a single net in Bellavista can collect an impressive amount of water—more than 150 gallons (568 liters).
Fog Catchers Bring Water to Parched Villages - National Geographic magazine
Fog Catchers Harvest Air's Water in Arid Places fog-collection natural-fog-collectors constructing-fog-catchers tossing-rock-fog-catchers fog-harvesters-built

There is very much a considerable quantity of such installations in the world.
Guatemala - Tojquia 2006 - 2010 Ethiopia - Debark 2010 Chile - Atacama Desert Center 2007 - 2010 Chile - Falda Verde 2001 - 2010 Nepal 2001 - 2010 Eritrea - Asmara 2005 - 2010 Morocco - Boutmezguida (Sidi Ifni) 2006 - 2010 Ethiopia 2010 Israel 2002-2010 Chile - Chanavaya 2010 Chile - Cerro Talinay 2004 - 2005 Chile - El Tofo / Chungungo 1987 - 2002 Chile - Padre Hurtado 1999-2004 Dominican Republic - 1999-2001 Ecuador - 1992 - 1993 Guatemala - Lake Atitlán 2003-2005 Haiti - Salagnac Plateau 2001-2002 Namibia - Early Projects 1996-2001 Sultanate of Oman 1989/1990 Peru - Cerro Orara 1990 Peru - Collanac 1993-1994 Peru - Mejia 1995 - 1999 Yemen - Hajja/Mabijan 2003-2005 Yemen - Saada Governorate 2003-2005

Unrealized projects

Max Water
An Australian inventor has developed a device that is capable of harvesting unlimited water from air. Powered by wind, the device uses the same source for water as well. Dubbed Max Water, the system according to the inventor would even harvest significant amounts of water using air with low humidity. A four-meter square device could extract an average 7,500 liters of water a day. Max Water
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Consumption

Water collection

Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing, of rainwater for reuse, before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses given to water. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water.It can supplement the sub soil water level and decrease urban greenery. Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially prepared for this purpose, is called Stormwater harvesting. In some cases, rainwater may be the only available, or economical, water source. Rainwater harvesting systems can be simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations. Roof rainwater can't be of good quality and may require treatment before consumption. As rainwater rushes from your roof it may carry pollutants in it such as the tiniest bit of mercury from coal burning buildings to bird feces. Although some rooftop materials may produce rainwater that is harmful to human health, it can be useful in flushing toilets, washing clothes, watering the garden and washing cars; these uses alone halve the amount of water used by a typical home. Household rainfall catchment systems are appropriate in areas with an average rainfall greater than 200 mm (7.9 in) per year, and no other accessible water sources (Skinner and Cotton, 1992). Overflow from rainwater harvesting tank systems can be used to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge, though this is a related process, it must not be confused with Rainwater harvesting. read more
Water Rights and Rain Rainwater Collection System

Water clarification

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. read more
Typical Water Clarification set-up

Water storage

Water tanks are containers for storing water, usually for human consumption. The need for water tank systems is as old as civilized man. A water tank provides for the storage of drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other possible solutions. read more
Storing water with the temporary water storage devices can be ideal during events Hyllie Water Tower Water tower Kuwait

Water Report
Detailed information on Melbourne's water supply system. Information on Melbourne's water storages is updated daily by around 2pm, seven days a week.
Storage graph 2009 - 2011
What does this graph show?
Total storage level of Melbourne’s reservoirs. This shows a trend of decreasing storage levels during the first half of the year, and then increasing or stabilising during the second half of the year when inflows to the reservoirs are more frequent.