Basic Energy info

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Article source: wikipedia

In physics, energy (Ancient Greek: ἐνέργεια energeia "activity, operation") is a quantity that is often understood as the ability a physical system has to dowork on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length.

The total energy contained in an object is identified with its mass, and energy (like mass), cannot be created or destroyed. When matter (ordinary material particles) is changed into energy (such as energy of motion, or into radiation), the mass of the system does not change through the transformation process. However, there may be mechanistic limits as to how much of the matter in an object may be changed into other types of energy and thus into work, on other systems. Energy, like mass, is a scalar physical quantity. In the International System of Units (SI), energy is measured in joules, but in many fields other units, such as kilowatt-hours and kilo-calories, are customary. All of these units translate to units of work, which is always defined in terms of forces and the distances that the forces act through.

A system can transfer energy to another system by simply transferring matter to it (since matter is equivalent to energy, in accordance with its mass). However, when energy is transferred by means other than matter-transfer, the transfer produces changes in the second system, as a result of work done on it. This work manifests itself as the effect of force(s) applied through distances within the target system. For example, a system can emit energy to another by transferring (radiating) electromagnetic energy, but this creates forces upon the particles that absorb the radiation. Similarly, a system may transfer energy to another by physically impacting it, but that case the energy of motion in an object, called kinetic energy, results in forces acting over distances (new energy) to appear in another object that is struck. Transfer of thermal energy by heat occurs by both of these mechanisms: heat can be transferred by electromagnetic radiation, or by physical contact in which direct particle-particle impacts transfer kinetic energy.

Energy may be stored in systems without being present as matter, or as kinetic or electromagnetic energy. Stored energy is created whenever a particle has been moved through a field it interacts with (requiring a force to do so), but the energy to accomplish this is stored as a new position of the particles in the field—a configuration that must be "held" or fixed by a different type of force (otherwise, the new configuration would resolve itself by the field pushing or pulling the particle back toward its previous position). This type of energy "stored" by force-fields and particles that have been forced into a new physical configuration in the field by doing work on them by another system, is referred to as potential energy. A simple example of potential energy is the work needed to lift an object in a gravity field, up to a support. Each of the basic forces of nature is associated with a different type of potential energy, and all types of potential energy (like all other types of energy) appears as system mass, whenever present. For example, a compressed spring will be slightly more massive than before it was compressed. Likewise, whenever energy is transferred between systems by any mechanism, an associated mass is transferred with it.

Any form of energy may be transformed into another form. For example, all types of potential energy are converted into kinetic energy when the objects are given freedom to move to different position (as for example, when an object falls off a support). When energy is in a form other than thermal energy, it may be transformed with good or even perfect efficiency, to any other type of energy, including electricity or production of new particles of matter. With thermal energy, however, there are often limits to the efficiency of the conversion to other forms of energy, as described by the second law of thermodynamics.

In all such energy transformation processes, the total energy remains the same, and a transfer of energy from one system to another, results in a loss to compensate for any gain. This principle, the conservation of energy, was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time. Although the total energy of a system does not change with time, its value may depend on the frame of reference. For example, a seated passenger in a moving air plane has zero kinetic energy relative to the airplane, but non-zero kinetic energy (and higher total energy) relative to the Earth.

HISTORY

The word energy derives from the Greek ἐνέργεια energeia, which possibly appears for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century BC.

The concept of energy emerged out of the idea of vis viva (living force), which Gottfried Leibniz defined as the product of the mass of an object and its velocity squared; he believed that total vis viva was conserved. To account for slowing due to friction, Leibniz theorized that thermal energy consisted of the random motion of the constituent parts of matter, a view shared by Isaac Newton, although it would be more than a century until this was generally accepted. In 1807, Thomas Young was possibly the first to use the term "energy" instead of vis viva, in its modern sense. Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described "kinetic energy" in 1829 in its modern sense, and in 1853, William Rankine coined the term "potential energy". It was argued for some years whether energy was a substance (the caloric) or merely a physical quantity, such asmomentum.

William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) amalgamated all of these laws into the laws of thermodynamics, which aided in the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs, and Walther Nernst. It also led to a mathematical formulation of the concept of entropy by Clausius and to the introduction of laws of radiant energy by Jožef Stefan. During a 1961 lecture for undergraduate students at the California Institute of Technology, Richard Feynman, a celebrated physics teacher and Nobel Laureate, said this about the concept of energy: There is a fact, or if you wish, a law, governing all natural phenomena that are known to date. There is no known exception to this law—it is exact so far as we know. The law is called the conservation of energy. It states that there is a certain quantity, which we call energy, that does not change in manifold changes which nature undergoes. That is a most abstract idea, because it is a mathematical principle; it says that there is a numerical quantity which does not change when something happens. It is not a description of a mechanism, or anything concrete; it is just a strange fact that we can calculate some number and when we finish watching nature go through her tricks and calculate the number again, it is the same.

—The Feynman Lectures on Physics

Since 1918 it has been known that the law of conservation of energy is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational symmetry of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time. That is, energy is conserved because the laws of physics do not distinguish between different instants of time (see Noether's theorem).

Energy in various contexts

The concept of energy and its transformations is useful in explaining and predicting most natural phenomena. The direction of transformations in energy (what kind of energy is transformed to what other kind) is often described by entropy (equal energy spread among all available degrees of freedom) considerations, as in practice all energy transformations are permitted on a small scale, but certain larger transformations are not permitted because it is statistically unlikely that energy or matter will randomly move into more concentrated forms or smaller spaces. The concept of energy is widespread in all sciences.

 In the context of chemistry, energy is an attribute of a substance as a consequence of its atomic, molecular or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structure, it is invariably accompanied by an increase or decrease of energy of the substances involved. Some energy is transferred between the surroundings and the reactants of the reaction in the form of heat or light; thus the products of a reaction may have more or less energy than the reactants. A reaction is said to be exergonic if the final state is lower on the energy scale than the initial state; in the case of endergonic reactions the situation is the reverse. Chemical reactions are invariably not possible unless the reactants surmount an energy barrier known as the activation energy. The speed of a chemical reaction (at given temperature T) is related to the activation energy E, by the Boltzmann's population factor e−E/kT – that is the probability of molecule to have energy greater than or equal to E at the given temperature T. This exponential dependence of a reaction rate on temperature is known as the Arrhenius equation.The activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction can be in the form of thermal energy.

 In biology, energy is an attribute of all biological systems from the biosphere to the smallest living organism. Within an organism it is responsible for growth and development of a biological cell or an organelle of a biological organism. Energy is thus often said to be stored by cells in the structures of molecules of substances such as carbohydrates (including sugars), lipids, and proteins, which release energy when reacted with oxygen in respiration. In human terms, the human equivalent (H-e) (Human energy conversion) indicates, for a given amount of energy expenditure, the relative quantity of energy needed for humanmetabolism, assuming an average human energy expenditure of 12,500kJ per day and a basal metabolic rate of 80 watts. For example, if our bodies run (on average) at 80 watts, then a light bulb running at 100 watts is running at 1.25 human equivalents (100 ÷ 80) i.e. 1.25 H-e. For a difficult task of only a few seconds' duration, a person can put out thousands of watts, many times the 746 watts in one official horsepower. For tasks lasting a few minutes, a fit human can generate perhaps 1,000 watts. For an activity that must be sustained for an hour, output drops to around 300; for an activity kept up all day, 150 watts is about the maximum. The human equivalent assists understanding of energy flows in physical and biological systems by expressing energy units in human terms: it provides a “feel” for the use of a given amount of energy.

 In geology, continental drift, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are phenomena that can be explained in terms of energy transformations in the Earth's interior., while meteorological phenomena likewind, rain, hail, snow, lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes, are all a result of energy transformations brought about by solar energy on the atmosphere of the planet Earth.

 In cosmology and astronomy the phenomena of stars, nova, supernova, quasars and gamma ray bursts are the universe's highest-output energy transformations of matter. All stellar phenomena (including solar activity) are driven by various kinds of energy transformations. Energy in such transformations is either from gravitational collapse of matter (usually molecular hydrogen) into various classes of astronomical objects (stars, black holes, etc.), or from nuclear fusion (of lighter elements, primarily hydrogen).

Energy transformations in the universe over time are characterized by various kinds of potential energy that has been available since the Big Bang, later being "released" (transformed to more active types of energy such as kinetic or radiant energy), when a triggering mechanism is available. Familiar examples of such processes include nuclear decay, in which energy is released that was originally "stored" in heavy isotopes (such as uranium and thorium), by nucleosynthesis, a process ultimately using the gravitational potential energy released from the gravitational collapse of supernovae, to store energy in the creation of these heavy elements before they were incorporated into the solar system and the Earth. This energy is triggered and released in nuclear fission bombs. In a slower process, radioactive decay of these atoms in the core of the Earth releases heat. This thermal energy drives plate tectonics and may lift mountains, via orogenesis. This slow lifting represents a kind of gravitational potential energy storage of the thermal energy, which may be later released to active kinetic energy in landslides, after a triggering event. Earthquakes also release stored elastic potential energy in rocks, a store that has been produced ultimately from the same radioactive heat sources. Thus, according to present understanding, familiar events such as landslides and earthquakes release energy that has been stored as potential energy in the Earth's gravitational field or elastic strain (mechanical potential energy) in rocks. Prior to this, they represent release of energy that has been stored in heavy atoms since the collapse of long-destroyed supernova stars created these atoms.

In another similar chain of transformations beginning at the dawn of the universe, nuclear fusion of hydrogen in the Sun also releases another store of potential energy which was created at the time of the Big Bang. At that time, according to theory, space expanded and the universe cooled too rapidly for hydrogen to completely fuse into heavier elements. This meant that hydrogen represents a store of potential energy that can be released by fusion. Such a fusion process is triggered by heat and pressure generated from gravitational collapse of hydrogen clouds when they produce stars, and some of the fusion energy is then transformed into sunlight. Such sunlight from our Sun may again be stored as gravitational potential energy after it strikes the Earth, as (for example) water evaporates from oceans and is deposited upon mountains (where, after being released at a hydroelectric dam, it can be used to drive turbines or generators to produce electricity). Sunlight also drives many weather phenomena, save those generated by volcanic events. An example of a solar-mediated weather event is a hurricane, which occurs when large unstable areas of warm ocean, heated over months, give up some of their thermal energy suddenly to power a few days of violent air movement. Sunlight is also captured by plants as chemical potential energy in photosynthesis, when carbon dioxide and water (two low-energy compounds) are converted into the high-energy compounds carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Plants also release oxygen during photosynthesis, which is utilized by living organisms as an electron acceptor, to release the energy of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Release of the energy stored during photosynthesis as heat or light may be triggered suddenly by a spark, in a forest fire, or it may be made available more slowly for animal or human metabolism, when these molecules are ingested, and catabolism is triggered by enzyme action.

Through all of these transformation chains, potential energy stored at the time of the Big Bang is later released by intermediate events, sometimes being stored in a number of ways over time between releases, as more active energy. In all these events, one kind of energy is converted to other types of energy, including heat.

Conservation of energy

Energy is subject to the law of conservation of energy. According to this law, energy can neither be created (produced) nor destroyed by itself. It can only be transformed.

Most kinds of energy (with gravitational energy being a notable exception)] are subject to strict local conservation laws as well. In this case, energy can only be exchanged between adjacent regions of space, and all observers agree as to the volumetric density of energy in any given space. There is also a global law of conservation of energy, stating that the total energy of the universe cannot change; this is a corollary of the local law, but not vice versa. Conservation of energy is the mathematical consequence of translational symmetry of time (that is, the indistinguishability of time intervals taken at different time) - seeNoether's theorem.

According to energy conservation law the total inflow of energy into a system must equal the total outflow of energy from the system, plus the change in the energy contained within the system. This law is a fundamental principle of physics. It follows from the translational symmetry of time, a property of most phenomena below the cosmic scale that makes them independent of their locations on the time coordinate. Put differently, yesterday, today, and tomorrow are physically indistinguishable.

This is because energy is the quantity which is canonical conjugate to time. This mathematical entanglement of energy and time also results in the uncertainty principle - it is impossible to define the exact amount of energy during any definite time interval. The uncertainty principle should not be confused with energy conservation - rather it provides mathematical limits to which energy can in principle be defined and measured.

In quantum mechanics energy is expressed using the Hamiltonian operator. On any time scales, the uncertainty in the energy is by ΔEΔt=h/2 which is similar in form to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (but not really mathematically equivalent thereto, since H and t are not dynamically conjugate variables, neither in classical nor in quantum mechanics).

In particle physics, this inequality permits a qualitative understanding of virtual particles which carry momentum, exchange by which and with real particles, is responsible for the creation of all known fundamental forces (more accurately known as fundamental interactions). Virtual photons (which are simply lowest quantum mechanical energy state of photons) are also responsible for electrostatic interaction between electric charges (which results in Coulomb law), for spontaneous radiative decay of exited atomic and nuclear states, for the Casimir force, for van der Waals bond forces and some other observable phenomena.

Forms of energy

In the context of physical sciences, several forms of energy have been defined. These include:

Thermal energy, thermal energy in transit is called heat

Chemical energy

Electrical energy

Radiant energy, the energy of electromagnetic radiation

Nuclear energy

Magnetic energy

Elastic energy

Sound energy

Mechanical energy

Luminous energy

These forms of energy may be divided into two main groups; kinetic energy and potential energy. Other familiar types of energy are a varying mix of both potential and kinetic energy. Energy may be transformed between these forms, some with 100% energy conversion efficiency and others with less. Items that transform between these forms are called transducers.

The above list of the known possible forms of energy is not necessarily complete. Whenever physical scientists discover that a certain phenomenon appears to violate the law of energy conservation, new forms may be added, as is the case with dark energy, a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe.

Classical mechanics distinguishes between potential energy, which is a function of the position of an object, and kinetic energy, which is a function of its movement. Both position and movement are relative to a frame of reference, which must be specified: this is often (and originally) an arbitrary fixed point on the surface of the Earth, the terrestrial frame of reference. It has been attempted to categorize all forms of energy as either kinetic or potential: this is not incorrect, but neither is it clear that it is a real simplification, as Feynman points out:These notions of potential and kinetic energy depend on a notion of length scale. For example, one can speak of macroscopic potential and kinetic energy, which do not include thermal potential and kinetic energy. Also what is called chemical potential energy (below) is a macroscopic notion, and closer examination shows that it is really the sum of the potential and kinetic energy on the atomic and subatomic scale. Similar remarks apply to nuclear "potential" energy and most other forms of energy. This dependence on length scale is non-problematic if the various length scales are decoupled, as is often the case ... but confusion can arise when different length scales are coupled, for instance when friction converts macroscopic work into microscopic thermal energy.

Energy Resources

Renewable

Geothermal Heat energy from underground.

The centre of the Earth is around 6000 degrees Celsius - easily hot enough to melt rock. Even a few kilometres down, the temperature can be over 250 degrees Celsius if the Earth's crust is thin. In general, the temperature rises one degree Celsius for every 30 - 50 metres you go down, but this does vary depending on location.Geothermal vent.Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam. We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them.Geothermal energy is an important resource in volcanically active places such as Iceland and New Zealand.How useful it is depends on how hot the water gets. This depends on how hot the rocks were to start with, and how much water we pump down to them.

geotermdiagram

Advantages:

  • Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
  • The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment.
  • No fuel is needed.
  • Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free.It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated.

Hydroelectric Energy from falling water.

A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators. The dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top, because the pressure of the water increases with depth. Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great deal of power very cheaply.Although there are many suitable sites around the world, hydro-electric dams are very expensive to build. However, once the station is built, the water comes free of charge, and there is no waste or pollution.

Advantages:

  • Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free.
  • No waste or pollution produced.
  • Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power.
  • Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand.
  • Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations.
  • Electricity can be generated constantly.

Tidal power

The tide moves a huge amount of water twice each day, and harnessing it could provide a great deal of energy - around 20% of Britain's needs.Although the energy supply is reliable and plentiful, converting it into useful electrical power is not easy. These work rather like a hydro-electric scheme, except that the dam is much bigger.A huge dam (called a "barrage") is built across a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam.The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine, or it can be used to push air through a pipe, which then turns a turbine. Large lock gates, like the ones used on canals, allow ships to pass.

Advantages:

  • Once you've built it, tidal power is free.
  • It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste.
  • It needs no fuel.
  • It produces electricity reliably.
  • Not expensive to maintain.
  • Tides are totally predictable.
  • Offshore turbines and vertical-axis turbines are not ruinously expensive to build and do not have a large environmental impact.

Wave power There are several methods of getting energy from waves.One of them works like a swimming pool wave machine in reverse.At a swimming pool, air is blown in and out of a chamber beside the pool, which makes the water outside bob up and down, causing waves. At a wave power station, the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall, which means that air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber.We place a turbine in this hole, which is turned by the air rushing in and out.The turbine turns a generator.A problem with this design is that the rushing air can be very noisy, unless a silencer is fitted to the turbine.The noise is not a huge problem anyway, as the waves make quite a bit of noise themselves.

Examples:

1.A company called Ocean Power Delivery are developing a method of offshore wave energy collection, using a floating tube called "Pelamis".This long, hinged tube (about the size of 5 railway carriages) bobs up and down in the waves, as the hinges bend they pump hydraulic fluid which drives generators. 2.Another company is called Renewable Energy Holdings. Their idea for generating wave power (called "CETO") uses underwater equipment on the sea bed near the coast. Waves passing across the top of the unit make a piston move, which pumps seawater to drive generators on land. They're also involved with wind power and biofuel. 3.The Oyster wave energy device. The action of the waves moves the device, pumping hydraulic fluid to a shore station to drive a generator.

More ideas about how to extract energy from waves are being proposed all the time. This page only shows a few examples.

Advantages: - The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. - Not expensive to operate and maintain. - Can produce a great deal of energy.

Wind

Solar

Energy from the sun.Just the tiny fraction of the Sun's energy that hits the Earth (around a hundredth of a millionth of a percent) is enough to meet all our power needs many times over.In fact, every minute, enough energy arrives at the Earth to meet our demands for a whole year - if only we could harness it properly.There are three main ways that we use the Sun's energy:

1.Solar Cells, really called "photovoltaic", "PV" or "photoelectric" cells that convert light directly into electricity. In a sunny climate, you can get enough power to run a 100W light bulb from just one square metre of solar panel. This was originally developed in order to provide electricity for satellites, but these days many of us own calculators powered by solar cells.

solar cells

2.Solar water heating, where heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on your roof.Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black, so they get hotter when the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of hot water out of the top.

solarwater

solarwaterdiagram

3.Solar Furnaces use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Sun's energy into a small space and produce very high temperatures.There's one at Odeillo, in France, used for scientific experiments. It can achieve temperatures up to 3,000 degrees Celsius.

odeilo

Advantages:

  • Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution.

  • In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place.

  • Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping your home energy bills.

Non-renewable

Nuclear

Energy from splitting Uranium atoms.

Nuclear power is generated using Uranium, which is a metal mined in various parts of the world. The first large-scale nuclear power station opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England, in 1956. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plants for engines.Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needs.

Nuclear power stations work in pretty much the same way as fossil fuel-burning stations, except that a "chain reaction" inside a nuclear reactor makes the heat instead.The reactor uses Uranium rods as fuel, and the heat is generated by nuclear fission: neutrons smash into the nucleus of the uranium atoms, which split roughly in half and release energy in the form of heat.Carbon dioxide gas or water is pumped through the reactor to take the heat away, this then heats water to make steam.The steam drives turbines which drive generators.

Disadvantages:

  • Although not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. For all that time it must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult.

  • Nuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has to be spent on safety - if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster.

Fossil fuels

Energy from fossilised organic materials.

Coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals.

Coal provides around 28% of our energy, and oil provides 40%. Burning coal produces sulphur dioxide, an acidic gas that contributes to the formation of acid rain. This can be largely avoided using "flue gas desulphurisation" to clean up the gases before they are released into the atmosphere. This method uses limestone, and produces gypsum for the building industry as a by-product. However, it uses a lot of limestone. Crude oil (called "petroleum") is easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes. This also makes it cheaper to transport. Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy, and as well as being burnt in power stations, is used by many people to heat their homes. It is easy to transport along pipes, and gas power stations produce comparatively little pollution.

Disadvantages:

  • Basically, the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution. Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide, which contributes to the "greenhouse effect", warming the Earth.

  • Burning coal produces more carbon dioxide than burning oil or gas. It also produces sulphur dioxide, a gas that contributes to acid rain. We can reduce this before releasing the waste gases into the atmosphere.

  • Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape.

  • Coal-fired power stations need huge amounts of fuel, which means train-loads of coal almost constantly. In order to cope with changing demands for power, the station needs reserves. This means covering a large area of countryside next to the power station with piles of coal.

Country

World total primary energy consumption

German

Electricity - production: 593.4 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity - consumption: 547.3 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - exports: 61.7 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports: 41.67 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production: 156,800 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 45

Oil - consumption: 2.437 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Oil - exports: 536,600 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Oil - imports: 2.862 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Oil - proved reserves: 276 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas - production: 15.29 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - consumption: 96.26 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas - exports: 12.64 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Natural gas - imports: 94.57 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - proved reserves: 175.6 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

energy consumption

energy consumption_germany

Berlin

ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BERLIN = 6.1 Mwt/h

How much energy consuming by appliances?

  1. Refrigerator (300 liters): 240 - 320 kW • h / year

  2. Washing machine (5 kg load, 60 ° C): 0,85 - 1,05 kW • h per cycle

  3. An electric clothes dryer (7 kg load): 2,4 - 4,4 kW • h per cycle

  4. Electric stove with oven: gas burner (diameter 145-180 mm) 1 - 2,3 kW • h, hour;oven (200 ° C): 0,9 - 1,1 kW • h per hour

  5. Tea (for cooking 8-12 cups): 0,8 - 1,2 kW • h

  6. Computer: 0,1 - 0,5 kW • h

  7. TV (82 cm LCD): 0,1 - 0,2 kW • h

  8. Incandescent lamp: 60 kW • h

  9. Energy Saving Fluorescent Lamp: 16 kW • h

Fees - the cost of utilities, electricity and gas in Berlin (Germany) in 2010

  1. Electricity - 0.22 euros per kWh
  2. Cold water - 1,88 euro m3
  3. Wastewater (sewage) - 1,97 evro/m3
  4. Hot water - 5.12 evro/m3
  5. Gas - 0.8 evro/m3

Gas - 0.09 euros per kWh

electro - 0,09 EUR per kWh

Central - 0,08 euro per kWh

Coal - 0,07 euro per rDx

France

Electricity - production: 535.7 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - consumption: 447.2 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - exports: 58.69 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports: 10.68 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production: 70,820 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 57

Oil - consumption: 1.875 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

Oil - exports: 597,800 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 24

Oil - imports: 2.386 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Oil - proved reserves: 101.2 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 68

Natural gas - production: 877 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 64

Natural gas - consumption: 44.84 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - exports: 1.931 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - imports: 45.85 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas - proved reserves: 7.079 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 83

energy consumption

energy consumption_france

Paris

Energy Consumption in Paris

Energy consumption in Paris = 5.6 Mwt/h

How much energy consuming by appliances?

  1. Refrigerator (300 liters): 240 - 320 kW • h / year

  2. Washing machine (5 kg load, 60 ° C): 0,85 - 1,05 kW • h per cycle

  3. An electric clothes dryer (7 kg load): 2,4 - 4,4 kW • h per cycle

  4. Electric stove with oven: gas burner (diameter 145-180 mm) 1 - 2,3 kW • h, hour;oven (200 ° C): 0,9 - 1,1 kW • h per hour

  5. Tea (for cooking 8-12 cups): 0,8 - 1,2 kW • h

  6. Computer: 0,1 - 0,5 kW • h

  7. TV (82 cm LCD): 0,1 - 0,2 kW • h

  8. Incandescent lamp: 60 kW • h

  9. Energy Saving Fluorescent Lamp: 16 kW • h

Fees - the cost of utilities, electricity and gas in Paris (France) in 2010

  1. Electricity - 0.19 euros per kWh
  2. Cold water - 1,65 euro m3
  3. Wastewater (sewage) - 1,83 evro/m3
  4. Hot water - 5.4 evro/m3
  5. Gas - 0.78 evro/m3

Gas - 0.083 euros per kWh

electro - 0,09 EUR per kWh

Central - 0,08 euro per kWh

Coal - 0,07 euro per rDx

This easy-to-use resource is available to help you research economic data relating to Paris Region and its key advantages. The maps showing region’s with rich potential such as renewable energies /major enterprise/; water, waste, air /major facilities/, eco business companies – cleaner land

the interactive economic map of Paris Region

The Paris Climate Protection Plan

To tackle environmental and global warming challenges, the City of Paris unanimously voted a plan to combat greenhouse gas emissions generated by various activities in Paris: the Paris Climate Protection Plan. This strong commitment is based on a “factor 4” approach and aims to result in 75% less greenhouse gas emissions from its own activities and those in Paris by 2050 compared to 2004.

ENERGY

In addition to the initiatives planned for its building stock and street lighting, the City intends to exercise its full powers as the granting authority for the public distribution of energy in Paris, with regard to the various concession holders, to cut consumption and increase the share of renewable energy. Four energy sources have been targeted: electricity, gas, district heating and cooling networks.

URBAN PLANNING

The City of Paris will apply the general objectives of the Climate Protection Plan in all its operations and is already targeting carbon neutrality for its major development operations. The agreement on a 20% bonus on the Coefficient d’Occupation des Sols (land-use coefficient) was been incorporated in the Climate Protection Plan as part of the PLU (local urban-planning plan) to construct very energy-efficient housing or buildings with renewable energy production facilities (solar or photovoltaic panels, heat pumps, etc.).

TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT

The Climate Protection Plan includes measures recommended in the Paris Transport Plan that must bring about reductions in the greenhouse gas emissions from Paris traffic in particular. The City intends to set standards for transport and municipal travel. By setting up a Plan de Déplacement de l’Administration Parisienne (a travel plan for City of Paris staff), it furthers its action undertaken on its fleet of vehicles: reducing the number of vehicles, using more energy efficient vehicles that consume less fuel and pollute less, using hybrid or electric vehicles.

CONSUMPTION AND WASTE

The City has undertaken a responsible procurement approach that aims to purchase the most “eco-responsible” products, facilities or services (recycled, recyclable, efficient, “clean”), to manage supply stocks and equipment as efficiently as possible (no wastage, making products last) and to advise departments, users and elected representatives on the best “sustainable” practices. At the same time, the City has developed waste screening at source in all districts. As part of the Climate Protection Plan, it is targeting a 15% reduction in Paris’s waste production by 2020. This target involves changing consumer habits, continuing to develop waste sorting, promoting a culture of re-use, improving professional practices and an improved recovery of waste. SYCTOM, the company in charge of processing waste from Paris and its outskirts, will also develop waste mechanization projects. Lastly, the City of Paris would like to act before the distribution of oil-based plastic bags is banned, set by regulation for 1 January 2010, by drawing up a charter with the relevant professionals.

HELPING PARIS TO ADJUST TO CLIMATE CHANGE

In addition to the initiatives planned to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the backbone of the Climate Protection Plan, a strategy to help our society adjust to climate change is necessary. Examples are the heat-wave plan, adapting buildings, planting Paris (i.e. creating green areas, roof and wall gardens and community gardens), the flood prevention plan and carbon offsetting.

PARIS GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AUDIT

As preparation for drawing up a climate stabilization strategy, the City of Paris launched a study in 2004 to calculate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by its own services and the different players located in the Paris region. Paris is the first major city to test and pilot the carbon calculator, Bilan CarboneTM, developed by ADEME (the French agency for environment and energy management) to calculate the greenhouse gases emitted by a local authority and the area it administers.

• Carbon footprint, visitors excluded The audit provided a deeper understanding of the Paris region’s environmental impact and helped planners rank and focus ideas for developing the Climate Protection Plan. Setting aside tourism, three sectors are responsible for 80% of the Paris region’s carbon footprint: energy consumption in buildings, passenger transport and goods transport.

paris carbon audit

• Buildings: 1.75 million tCe, or 6.4 million tCO2e* Buildings in Paris use close to 35 000 GWh of power a year, equivalent to the annual output of four nuclear power stations. This total embraces the energy consumption of residential, tertiary and commercial premises (for heating, electricity and hot water production). This substantial figure of 6.4 million tCO2e 1 is due in part to the fact that the buildings in Paris are generally old and poorly insulated, resulting in high energy consumption. The tertiary sector is another big user of energy for heating, lighting and now air conditioning.

• Passenger transport: 1.75 million tCe, or 6.4 million tCO2e The transport sector, being heavily oil dependent, is a high-greenhouse-gas emitting sector. Transporting Paris’s residents, workers and people in transit (including by air) generates 6.4 million tons of CO2, despite an extremely dense and efficient public transport network (including taxis) that emits only 100 000 tons of carbon (367 000 tCO2e) for the 3 billion people it transports per year.

• Goods transport: 1.75 million tCe, or 6.4 million tCO2e Every year, over 30 million tons of goods enter or leave Paris. Transporting goods that are either used in Paris or transit through its logistics platforms generates over 6.4 million tCO2e. This estimate includes emissions generated directly from the supply point, which is often a long way away from Paris. In addition to the above, there are also emissions from other activities.

• Consumption and waste: 1.3 million tCe, or 4.8 million tCO2e This item includes emissions resulting from the manufacture or production of all manufactured or food products consumed by Parisians, as well as disposal of the waste they generate. Unfortunately, for figures in this area to be absolutely accurate, we would need to hold data on the full range of products consumed by Parisians (food, home appliances, furniture, computer and electronic equipment, etc.), along with an audit of the greenhouse gas emissions entailed in producing each of these products. Because such a complete set of figures is not available, this item is probably underestimated. Even without these missing figures, emissions came to 4.8 million tCO2e.

• Other items: 0.035 million tCe, or 0.13 million tCO2e The “industry” item is extremely low. Only one Parisian industry is registered in the Plan National d’Allocation des Quotas de CO2 (the national CO2 allowance allocation plan), namely Compagnie Parisienne de Chauffage Urbain (CPCU). This is a steam network operated as a concession from the city administration and which supplies district heating to 400 000 Parisian homes. Its emissions are low because it produces heat by incinerating household waste and at two cogeneration plants, thereby reducing its consumption of fossil energy and increasing the network’s efficiency.Paris’s woods also constitute two 3000 tCe carbon sinks, as plants absorb carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Parks and gardens are deemed to be carbon neutral because the emissions entailed in their upkeep are offset by the emissions absorbed by the plants they contain.

Visitor-generated emissions: 4.4million tCe, or 16.2 million tCO2e

evaluation of visitors

Carbon Audit of the City of Paris administration A total of 253 000 tCO2e are emitted annually by municipal services.

carbon audit of the city administration

City of Paris vehicle emissions

vehicle emissions

Main objectives of the Paris Climate Protection Plan

main objectives

Russia

Electricity - production: 925.9 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - consumption: 857.6 billion kWh (2009) country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - exports: 17.7 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports: 3.066 billion kWh (2009)

Oil - production: 10.12 million bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Oil - consumption: 2.74 million bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Oil - exports: 5.43 million bbl/day (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Oil - imports: 42,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Oil - proved reserves: 74.2 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - production: 583.6 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - consumption: 439.6 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 3

Natural gas - exports: 179.1 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - imports: 35.1 billion cu m (2009) country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - proved reserves: 47.57 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Novoline online

energy consumption

energy consumption_russia

Moscow

ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MOSCOW = 15.1 Mwt/h

How much energy consuming by appliances?

  1. Refrigerator (300 liters): 240 - 320 kW • h / year

  2. Washing machine (5 kg load, 60 ° C): 0,85 - 1,05 kW • h per cycle

  3. An electric clothes dryer (7 kg load): 2,4 - 4,4 kW • h per cycle

  4. Electric stove with oven: gas burner (diameter 145-180 mm) 1 - 2,3 kW • h, hour;oven (200 ° C): 0,9 - 1,1 kW • h per hour

  5. Tea (for cooking 8-12 cups): 0,8 - 1,2 kW • h

  6. Computer: 0,1 - 0,5 kW • h

  7. TV (82 cm LCD): 0,1 - 0,2 kW • h

  8. Incandescent lamp: 60 kW • h

  9. Energy Saving Fluorescent Lamp: 16 kW • h

Fees - the cost of utilities, electricity and gas in Moscow (Russia) in 2010

  1. Electricity - 0.02 euros per kWh
  2. Cold water - 0,5 euro/m3
  3. Wastewater (sewage) - 0,35 euro/m3
  4. Hot water - 1.9 euro/m3
  5. Gas - 0.075 euro/m3

Gas - 0.009 euros per kWh

electro - 0,035 EUR per kWh

Central - 0,012 euro per kWh

Coal - 0,095 euro per rDx